Confirmatory Composite Analysis (CCA)

Confirmatory composite analysis (CCA; Hair et al. 2018, Chapter 13; Hair et al., 2020; Schuberth et al., 2018) can be considered as an alternative to the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in the development, adaptation and confirmation of measurement scales. SmartPLS fully supports the CCA in PLS-SEM.


  • Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., and Anderson, R. E. (2018). Multivariate Data Analysis, 8th ed., Cengage: Mason, OH.
  • Hair, J. F., Howard, M. C., and Nitzl, C. (2020). Assessing Measurement Model Quality in PLS-SEM Using Confirmatory Composite Analysis. Journal of Business Research, 109, 101-110.
  • Schuberth, F., Henseler, J., Dijkstra, T. K. (2018). Confirmatory Composite Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2541.


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